Dyslexia is a chronic problem that is related to reading abilities in people. It affects a large number of people, especially people with various disabilities. Up to 15% of the population in developed countries suffer from this condition. People with dyslexia often have problems not only with reading, but also with writing, spelling, mathematics, and sometimes music. Dyslexia in men is three times more common than in women. A person suffering from dyslexia finds it difficult to master the skills of reading and writing. For this reason, the condition is the most troublesome for children of the age when they develop, study and learn new things (kindergarten or school age).
Most people think that dyslexia involves reading from the right to the left. However, it is not the main problem, that people with dyslexia have to deal with. As most medical experts suggest, dyslexia has little to do with perceiving the visual form of words. The disorder is more associated with brain activity in the patients. Their brain processes the information in a different way. This causes difficulty making up words out of letters and separate sounds (phonemes).
Dyslexia can occur at any level of intellectual development. In schoolchildren, it can be accompanied by lack of motivation, emotional or behavioral problems, and sensory disorders. That’s why sometimes, children with dyslexia seem to be lazy. Their parents or teachers think that they just don’t want to make efforts to study. In the meantime, if any dyslexia symptoms are noticed, the child should be properly examined. The most common signs are the following:
- rubbing the eyes, little mowing;
- keeping a book close to the eyes when reading;
- trying to avoid homework and reading;
- reading with one eye (closing the other eye, turning the book or the head so that only one eye participated in reading);
- missing random words or not noticing parts of the text;
- severe headache during or after reading;
- the child hardly remembers, identifies and reproduces basic geometric figures;
- at early age the child may write the words backwards;
- reading skills are lower than expected for a certain age;
- bad handwriting skills, the words are mixed up.
When diagnosing dyslexia, it is necessary to rule out eyesight disorders, that may also lead to the symptoms stated above. Moreover, the doctor should check hearing organs as well.
Dyslexia is a congenial condition. Its cause is associated with neurological disorders of a genetic nature. Unfortunately, it is impossible to cure the disorder. However, its manifestations can be controlled and improved. During the examination, the child’s speaking and reading skills are checked. Certain tests show the level of cognitive abilities (memory, apprehension, attention, etc.).